Introduction: Our series of lessons for the past 11 weeks has taught
us that God’s law, the Ten Commandments, still stands as God’s
standard for our lives. What has changed about the covenant (the
contract) between God and humanity, is our side of the agreement.
Instead of being required to perfectly keep the law, we are instead
asked to accept, as our substitute, Jesus’ perfect obedience to the
law and His death for our sins. Does this make any sense to you? If
it does, how should it affect our attitude towards others? Paul lays
out a logical summary of this change in Romans 3 and 4. Let’s explore
the logic of Paul for our study this week!

  1. Justice

    1. Let’s review a moment. Read Romans 3:21. We have been
      discussing the continuing importance of the Ten
      Commandments. What is this righteousness that is “apart”
      from the law?” (This is Jesus’ sacrifice of His life for
      us. His perfect obedience to the law.)

      1. When the text says the “Law and Prophets testify” to
        this righteousness, what do you think that means?
        (The old covenant system of sacrifices pointed to, or
        symbolized, what Jesus would do on our behalf.)

    2. OK. Enough review. Let’s move ahead. Read Romans 3:22-24.
      How do we obtain this righteousness from God? (Through
      faith in Jesus – if we believe.)

      1. What does Paul mean when he says “there is no
        difference?” Difference in what? Social status?
        Theological status?

      2. What does this say to those who claim to be “the
        remnant?” (We are all, according to this text, a
        bunch of sinners. We need to be shy, as sinners,
        about claiming to be the theological “betters” of
        other sinners.)

      3. Is it possible to be in exactly the same position as
        other sinners when it comes to sin and grace, but in
        a superior position when it comes to our
        understanding God’s will? (No superior theological
        understanding will make one bit of difference on the
        grace side of things. However, there certainly are
        Christians who are serious about knowing God and who,
        as a result, have a superior knowledge of Him.
        Consider 1 Corinthians 3:10-15.)

        1. Are some of us superior in the sin area by
          having less sin? I once was in a meeting where
          I heard the speaker say that she had not sinned
          for the last twenty years. Didn’t she have a
          claim to superiority in the sin area? (When I
          heard her say that I thought, “Well, I just
          heard you sin right now.” Any sin separates us
          from God. The penalty for sin is death. (Romans

      4. What quality do all those who are justified by the
        grace of Jesus share? (That they believe in Jesus

        1. Why does Romans 3:22 refer both to “faith in
          Christ” and “all who believe?” Are these two
          separate requirements for grace? (Consider James
          2:18-20 where he tells us that even the demons
          believe in Jesus.)

    3. Let’s read on in Romans 3. Read Romans 3:25-26. How does
      Jesus’ sacrifice for us demonstrate justice?

      1. How was it just for Jesus, who was sinless, to die a
        painful death for our sins? (When God told Adam that
        the penalty for sin was death ( Genesis 2:16-17), He
        was not kidding. The “justice” was that if we did not
        die for our sins, then our Creator must die for those

        1. Why did the Creator have to die? Why not
          someone else?

      2. God is God and He can do anything. Why didn’t He just
        say, “A mistake was made (after all, you are only
        human!) and we will just forget all about this
        unfortunate incident?” Why make such a big deal about
        it? Why make His Son go through this unbelievably
        harsh experience because of the sin of Adam and Eve?
        (Our only conclusion must be that God’s law was that

      3. If you are ever tempted to think that the Ten
        Commandments are not important, and obedience to God
        doesn’t really matter that much, consider the
        importance of the law to God the Father and God the
        Son. What was more important to God than the
        requirements of the law? (Apparently nothing was more
        important. Jesus gave His life because of it.)

      4. I often hear people say, quoting John 3:16, that
        Jesus gave up His life on the cross for us because He
        “loved us.” Did Jesus love us or did He love the law?
        (Apparently, true love for us requires the
        preservation of the law. If God the Father just loved
        us without any standards, He could have simply
        changed the rules and let us live without having
        anyone die – much less His Son Jesus. I can only
        conclude that it would have been unloving for God to
        give us eternal life without preserving the integrity
        of the law. For that reason, God’s ultimate act of
        love for us preserved the law at the same time as He
        preserved us.)

  2. Our Attitudes

    1. Read Romans 3:27. What should be our attitude about other
      Christians? Should we think that we are better Christians
      than others?

      1. If not, why not? (This verse tells us that boasting
        is “excluded” based on the principle that we were
        saved by faith, and not saved by our obedience to the
        law. Any obedience does not make us better than
        others, because we still do not perfectly obey the
        law and are therefore “entitled” only to death. It
        was only Jesus’ sacrifice on our behalf that gave us
        the chance for life.)

    2. Read Romans 3:28-30. Who is eligible for this offer of
      grace and eternal life? (Everyone. The Jews thought they
      were special. They had a special relationship with God.
      However, if faith, rather than our merits, makes all the
      difference, then everyone who has faith can be saved.)

    3. Read Romans 3:31. Why does righteousness by faith uphold
      the law? (See the last three questions of the previous
      section (I (C)(2-4).)

  3. Righteousness by Faith

    1. Read Romans 4:1-3. Did Abraham have some great works? Did
      he do great things for God?

      1. Have you ever told God that you were doing some good
        things for Him? Have you ever thought that God
        should appreciate all you do for His kingdom?

        1. What is wrong with Abraham boasting to God about
          what He had done? For example, Abraham left his
          home to follow God. Can’t Abraham say to God,
          “Remember, I did what you asked me to do. I left
          my home just as you asked.” (Imagine I gave you
          a new car. You came to me and reported that you
          had shined up that new car, put air in the
          tires, vacuumed the carpet and filled it with
          gas. Would you dare tell me that you now
          deserved to be given the car? Would you say you
          had now earned the right to be given the car? I
          think that is what Paul is saying here about the
          idea of Abraham boasting to God about his good

    2. Read Romans 4:4-5. Paul tells us that when a man works,
      his pay is not a gift. He earned it. Why does Paul make
      this argument? Why can’t our works earn us some merit
      before God? (Read Galatians 3:17-18. Paul is telling us
      that God’s original covenant with Abraham was that Abraham
      would be saved because of God’s gift to him, not because
      he earned it. Giving the Ten Commandments did not change
      that gift. So, Paul’s point is that if righteousness is a
      gift from God, we should not start saying that we can earn
      it. If we earned any part of it, righteousness would no
      longer be a gift.)

    3. Let’s skip down and read Romans 4:16-17. When Paul says
      that God “gives life to the dead and calls things that are
      not as though they were,” what does he mean?

      1. In what way does God “call things that are not as
        though they were?”

        1. Does this have anything to do with giving “life
          to the dead?”(I love this text. God calls us
          righteous even when we are not. As a result of
          calling us righteous, he gives us life. By this
          God gives life to the dead. This shows that
          God’s grace is an unmerited gift to us.)

    4. Friend, God has offered you the priceless gift of eternal
      life. You don’t deserve it. But, because of Jesus great
      sacrifice for you, eternal life is offered as a free gift.
      Will you accept it?

  4. Next week: The New-Covenant Life